SAINT Robredo received the 2000 Ramon Magsaysay Award for

SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY

School of Teacher Education and Liberal Arts

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School Year 2017-2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluating Leaders and their Contributions Using the Classical and
Modern Ethical Perspectives in Governance

 

 

 

Submitted by:

                                    2156925
Cael, Japhet M.

                                    BA Political Science III

                                    09101163927

                                    [email protected]

                                    1:00 – 2:00 MWF

 

Submitted to:

Mr. Emmanuel J. Bacud, CSE, MA Pol Sci

[email protected]

 

 

I.            
Evaluating
Leaders and their Contributions Using the Classical and Modern Ethical
Perspectives in Governance

 

Classical
Perspective

Modern
Perspective

 

Deontological
Ethics (KANT)

WEBERS’S
POLITICS AS A VOCATION

Jesse
Robredo & The Transformation of Naga

According
(Jr., n.d.), Jesse Robredo is
known as the “Matino (sensible), Mahusay (competent), Matapat (honest)”
leader which was the three pillars of a public servant that people must
possess. In relation to Kantian Ethics which a leader must be duty bounded
which is a moral action and the reasoning is embedded duty. In addition,
Jesse Robredo as seen in his Tsinelas’ leadership where his life in public
service, as Naga mayor and DILG secretary, is featured.
From
our discussion the command of will of Kant Ethics is that as a leader, it is
a must to consider duty as moral obligation to the public and must do this
obligation because it is a must without expecting anything in return.
 

Jesse
Robredo received the 2000 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Service and
earned the good governance icon for his innovations in making the city
government of Naga transparent and accessible to its constituency, which
national and international institutions, like the United Nations, had recognized
several times (Jr., n.d.).
This
is the very notion of or the aim of the virtue of “ira et studium” (to be
passionate) and sense of proportion and avoidance of “vanity”. The “Ethics of
Responsibility” as considering the task as a calling and needs to be done
from the heart.
 
 

 

Utilitarianism

Transactional
Leadership

Carlos
P. Garcia & the Filipino First Policy

The
condition of the Philippines before the administration of Garcia was the
Philippines is just recovering from the after effects of World War 2, with
this the Philippines experienced several economic challenges (Carlos P. Garcia
(1957-1961), n.d.). In this situation of the country,
The Filipino First Policy of Carlos P. Garcia had helped the Filipinos
especially the local businessmen to be a priority over foreign investors. It
also gives a high sense of nationalism since products of Filipino businessmen
were preferred over foreign products (Carlos P.
Garcia (1957-1961), n.d.).
The
goal of late president Garcia was in lined with the maximizing the citizen’s
pleasure and minimizing the pain but the fact that this policy had some
issues and controversies because it had not helped all the Filipino people
thereby it is not very successful. Although at some point it still helped at
decreasing the pain that the Filipinos were suffering at that time. 

President
Carlos p. Garcia was criticized for his lack of program for the Filipino
common man or the masses which was the focus of the next president Macapagal
thereby losing on the next election (Carlos P. Garcia
(1957-1961), n.d.).
In
this sense, it implies that at first the goal was to benefit the businessmen
of the Philippines in return without expecting anything in return but it
became a transactional leadership because the masses were not affected and
since he is the president it is his duty to make the life of the people
became better or develop the way of lifestyle.

 

DEONTOLOGICAL
ETHICS

UNDP’s
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE

Benigno
Simeon Aquino III & 4Ps

The
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a human development measure of
the national government that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest
of the poor, to improve the health, nutrition, and the education of children
aged 0-18. It is patterned after the conditional cash transfer (CCT) schemes
in Latin American and African countries, which have lifted millions of people
around the world from poverty (Pantawid Pamilyang
Pilipino Program | GOVPH, n.d.). President Benigno
Simeon Aquino as a head proponent of the 4P’s which became the country’s
government largest poverty reduction measure in reducing the ranks of the
poor in the country was an evidence to say that the king of leadership that
Benigno Simeon Aquino III was an example of command of will considering his
duty as a moral obligation in helping the students and citizens of the
country.

The
4Ps operates in all the 17 regions in the Philippines, covering 79 provinces,
143 cities, and 1,484 municipalities. Beneficiaries are selected through the
National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR), which
identifies who and where the poor are in the country (Pantawid Pamilyang
Pilipino Program | GOVPH, n.d.).
The
4P’s is open to all citizens who are qualified or those people who really are
in need of assistance thereby in line with the 1997 UNDP policy document
entitled “Governance for Sustainable Human Development” which also aimed in
poverty eradication and help countries in making human sustainable.

 

Utilitarian

THE
CRITICAL THEORY

Fidel
V. Ramos & Pilipinas 2000

The
Philippines 2000 platform largely hinged on five major areas:
Ø  Peace and Stability
Ø  Economic Growth and
Sustainable Development
Ø  Energy and Power Generation
Ø  Environmental Protection
Ø  Streamlined Bureaucracy
(Jordan, n.d.)
Due
to his economic programs and accomplishments, Newsweek Magazine, cited the
Philippines as the “The Next Tiger of Asia.” (PHILIPPINES 2000 –
A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.d.).
The
development that was done by President Fidel V. Ramos helped the citizens of
the country in resolving economic problems like the power crisis through
privatization of power plants and the construction of new ones that spurred
additional investment into the country during his term (PHILIPPINES 2000 –
A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.d.).
This
makes it utilitarian in nature since President Fidel V. Ramos and his program
of Pilipinas 2000 aimed at developing the lives of the people and minimizing
the pain that they are experiencing.

Through
the collaborative effort among people of the Philippines with the Pilipinas
2000 had helped and solved the nationwide problem of widespread brownouts due
to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants
 through a communication free from domination
which resulted to the rationalization of society and its development. IN
addition, President Ramos implement economic reforms intended to open up the
once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more
foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption in the country that
benefited and promoted the common good of all (PHILIPPINES 2000 –
A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.d.).

 

Virtue
Ethics

UNDP’s
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE

Rodrigo
R. Duterte & TRAIN Law

The
2018 national budget would support infrastructure development and free
education in state universities and colleges, universal health care, free
irrigation, and the maintenance of peace and order across the country – and
would fulfill the President’s campaign promise of doubling the pay soldiers
and police officers (Duterte: 2018
budget, TRAIN govt’s biggest Christmas gift to Filipinos, n.d.).
President
Rodrigo Roa Duterte having the ethics of virtue in governing the state. Like
PLATO: A leader should have the “utmost” level of wisdom
(highly-knowledgeable) in governing the state. Pres. Rodrigo had envisioned
and come up with a viable solution in making the country better through its
TRAIN law.

The
elements of good governance:
1-Particpation
(Participatory Governance)
2-
Rule of Law (Just society)
3-Transparency
4-Responsiveness

5-
Consensus-Orientation
6-Equity

7-
Effectiveness and Efficiency
8-
Accountability
9-
Strategic Vision
Led
to the coming up of TRAIN law of our current president.

 

Deontological

THE
CRITICAL THEORY AND GOVERNANCE

H.
Gualberto & the making of “PEOPLE’S CITY OF SAN FERNANDO (La Union)

Under
the leadership of Mayor Hermenegildo “Dong” Gualberto, the City
Government of San Fernando signed a Memorandum of Agreement with the
Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) last December
5, 2017 for the construction of high speed broadband infrastructure along the
seawaters of the City (Beleo, n.d.)
The
city of San Fernando had made an astonishing development in their region with
the guidance and leadership of the mayor. The “Pantay-pantay, Sabay-sabay “ideology
of the mayor created a good cooperation with the people.
In
this sense, the leadership style was duty bounded and moral obligation to the
people was done.

“Pantay-pantay”
“Sabay-sabay”
The
theory of Mayor Hermenegildo “Dong” Gualberto made his region a
remarkable one in the country. With the collaborative effort among the people
of San Fernando which resulted to the development of the place and the
betterment of the citizen.

 

Utilitarian

TRANSACTIONAL
LEADERSHIP

Arthur
& PUV Modernization Program

The
Public Vehicle modernization program which is designed to make public utility
vehicles safer, more convenient, more comfortable, and environment-friendly
had been launched for the safety and accommodating commuting services will be
offered to the public. The new vehicles will be equipped with GPS and CCTVs
to monitor both drivers and passengers. They’ll also have speed limiters, and
safety officers will be assigned. The entire public transport network
promises to be expanded and planned out better, plus the new vehicles will
have easier access for PWDs and those with limited mobility. In addition, it
will also benefit the drivers since they will be getting monthly salaries and
benefits. Reduced working hours, and be given opportunities to take part in
government-sponsored driving training programs. The local manufacturers will
have better access to credit for the costs of operations and maintenance. The
loan also provides program promises like low equity, low interest rates, and longer
payment periods (What you need to
know about the PUV modernization program, n.d.).
In
this leadership style and governance, it is very Utilitarian because it aims
at the common good of all but it is a long-term process since the short term
is not that good. Our environment will be more save and have a better feeling
and the consumers and producers too will benefit.

The
utilization of reward that the citizens of the country will be receiving
after the PUV modernization program was launch will be a long-term process
but it is very worthful and it will benefit masses. The punishment among
people that they are experiencing right now will be short-while only since it
will not be long the condition will become better. It is just like accepting
a new technology that will make the life of people became better. This is at
first it will be hard but soon enough it will be good.

 

Deontological

WEBERS’S
POLITICS AS A VOCATION

J.
Garin’s & Dengvaxia Vaccine Implementation

Health
Secretary Janette P. Loreto-Garin is a physician and was a state legislator
for 9 years, shepherding the Magna Carta for Women, Cheaper Medicines Law,
and the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Law among many others (Dr. Janette P.
Loreto-Garin | Department of Health website, n.d.). Former Health
Secretary Janette Garin said the Philippines participated in all three phases
of the vaccine’s clinical development with subjects from Cebu and several
areas in Metro Manila.
The
vaccine resulted from more than a decade of “efficacy and safety studies” in
10 countries, involving more than 30,000 children, according to the
Department of Health (DOH).
In
April 2016, the DOH launched the program, providing free vaccines to selected
Grade 4 public school pupils in three regions with the highest number of
dengue cases—Metro Manila, Central Luzon and Calabarzon. (Inquirer, n.d.).
Sanofi
itself made the announcement in a statement released on Wednesday, November
29, after new analysis of 6 years’ worth of clinical data. “The analysis
confirmed that Dengvaxia provides persistent protective benefit against
dengue fever in those who had prior infection. For those not previously
infected by dengue virus, however, the analysis found that in the longer
term, more cases of severe disease could occur following vaccination upon a
subsequent dengue infection,” said Sanofi. The pharmaceutical company
will now propose to national regulatory agencies to update the vaccine’s
label. Dengvaxia will no longer be recommended for people who have not been
infected by dengue before. (Dengue vaccine
more risky for people without prior infection – Sanofi, n.d.).
Now
the implementation becomes very controversial and a hot topic in the country
on who really had a mistake on the implementation of the Dengvaxia Vaccine.
I
believe that it is a Deontological since Jannette Garin being the head was
doing its duty in what he thinks is good and promotes the common interest of
the people.
 
 

The
Ethics of Ultimate Ends as living off Politics as Source of income is now
becoming a synonymous of what had happened or what is happening to Janette
Garin today. The question of did she do her job or she is just doing because
someone told to do so and in return for something else.
 

 

II.          
Discussions

The
activity that was done is very challenging since it makes us students really
read and understand what we are doing. In addition, we are being trained to do
the right thing of not having our paper plagiarized therefore most of my ideas
come from the internet sources and citation was made eventually.

In
addition, I am also constantly changing my attitude and character since the
past subjects that I encounter in not the same in the subject or ways of
teaching that I am encountering now.

The
activity was really updating since the leaders that was evaluated are the in
the list of controversial people and a hot topic in politics, making us
students become more informed and knowledgeable in what is happening in our country.

III.        
Citations

References

Beleo, E. (n.d.). San Fernando City La Union Web Portal.
Retrieved from Sanfernandocity.gov.ph: http://www.sanfernandocity.gov.ph/
Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961). (n.d.).
Retrieved from Philippine Presidents: https://bloomspresidents.wordpress.com/carlos-p-garcia-1957-1961/
Dengue vaccine more risky for people without prior
infection – Sanofi. (n.d.). Retrieved from Rappler: https://www.rappler.com/science-nature/life-health/189968-dengvaxia-dengue-fever-vaccine-infection-sanofi-report
Dr. Janette P. Loreto-Garin | Department of Health website. (n.d.).
Retrieved from Doh.gov.ph: http://www.doh.gov.ph/node/1825
Duterte: 2018 budget, TRAIN govt’s biggest Christmas gift
to Filipinos. (n.d.). Retrieved from cnn:
http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/12/19/duterte-2018-general-appropriations-act-tax-reform-for-acceleration-and-inclusion-act-signed.html
Inquirer, P. (n.d.). WHAT WENT BEFORE: Dengue vaccine.
Retrieved from Newsinfo.inquirer.net:

WHAT WENT BEFORE: Dengue vaccine


Jordan, A. (n.d.). “The Plan for the Future of the
Philippines”. Retrieved from Antonmigueljordan.blogspot.com:
http://antonmigueljordan.blogspot.com/2013/02/the-plan-for-future-of-philippines.html
Jr., J. (n.d.). Museum for Naga City’s beloved son rises
on playground. Retrieved from Newsinfo.inquirer.net: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/923645/museum-for-naga-citys-beloved-son-rises-on-playground
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program | GOVPH. (n.d.).
Retrieved from Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines: http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/programs/conditional-cash-transfer/
PHILIPPINES 2000 – A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED? (n.d.).
Retrieved from Storya-pilipinas.blogspot.com:
http://storya-pilipinas.blogspot.com/2014/06/philippines-2000-vision-left-not.html
What you need to know about the PUV modernization program. (n.d.).
Retrieved from Top Gear Philippines:
https://www.topgear.com.ph/news/motoring-news/puv-modernization-program-a00187-20170619