New to establish conditions that increase agroecosystem resilience to

New approaches and technologies that
includes application of blended and indigenous knowledge systems and modern
agricultural science are led by thousands of farmers NGOs,  academic institutions and  some government . The goal is to  enhance food security while conserving
agrobiodiversity, soil and water resources throughout hundreds of rural
communities in the developing world as stated by Altieri (2012).

Support from the
government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) , academe, financing institutions
should be provided to the farmers. Capacity building on knowledge and skills is
necessary to equip the farmers and make them capable of coping with climate
change. According to Azadi et al (2011) it is important to
establish conditions that increase agroecosystem resilience to stress to combat
the threats of climate change . Increasing agro-ecosystem adaptive capacity is
required   to withstand climate
variability including temperature variations, erratic rainfall, and unexpected
events. 

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If there are projects to
increase their crop yield, continuous project monitoring and evaluation should
be done to ensure that the community is maintaining what they have started.
This is to ensure that there is a follow-up that has been done on the
interventions made. Monitoring and evaluation are needed to develop implementable
plans, learn from mistakes and make mid-course corrections. A monitoring and
evaluation component must be included as an integral part of any program or
project.

Political
Dimension

Issues like environmental
destruction and  too much consumption due
to population growth has prompted to refocus policy concern on food. Governance
capacity is important to change consumption patterns and address food waste and
promote sustainable practices. (Gofray and Garnett , 2014). To achieve food security,
a stable, sustainable and predictable supply of nutritionally-balanced food
must be available through equitable access over time horizon .

Actions to modify population
growth and resource intensive consumption patterns, improve systems of
governance, and reduce waste are policy goals . In the study  Badgeley  and Perfecto (2007) claim  that nitrogen fertility methods and organic
yield could feed the world, it does not forecast yields for any particular crop
or region, nor does it claim that a global organic food system would
necessarily increase food security anywhere. Food security depends on policies
and prices as much as on yields. Studies of three kinds: controlled experiments
of two or more management methods, paired-farm comparisons in regions with the
same soils and climate and comparisons on the same farm before and after a
change in management practices.. These studies believe that that there is an achievement
of alternative agricultural systems both agronomically and economically. These
achievements would multiply with additional research on  fertility methods ,locally suitable cropping
systems, and pest management for different agricultural regions.

 

In the Food Security
Journal (2009): The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and
Access to Food, it was stated that in developing countries, 70% or more of the
population lives in rural areas. In that context, agricultural development
should provide small-holder farmers and landless people livelihood to give them
the opportunity to stay in their communities. In many areas of the world, land
ownership is not available, thus, people who want or need a farm to make a
living have little incentive to improve the land. In the Philippines,  landlessness is also a problem in the
agricultural system. If farmers are given the opportunity to own their land,
they will be responsible stewards of the environment. Land reform programs
should be revisited. Through this, the community will be more engaged in sustainable
activities. Capacity building on knowledge and skills should be provided.
Policies and programs on food security should be improved. People empowerment
is necessary towards sustainable practices.

In the advent of climate change, the small-holder farmers should be
considered in policies that will increase food production. Inputs that does not
create too much environmental impact should be considered together with the
technology adoption, new varieties and access to markets.

“Changes in agricultural policy
are essential and could bring changes in marketing and  farming and practices within a few years. The
Cuban food system for example had a  massive reorganization of marketing and
farming methods after the fall of the Soviet Union. After several years of
crisis, exacerbated by the US economic blockade, Cuba now has one of the most
progressive food systems in the world. “A global food system based on
agroecological principles is possible and there are urgent reasons to move in
this direction ” as stated by Badgeley 
and Perfecto (2007).

 

Factors like limited or
slow dissemination and implementation has impeded adaptation of of
agro-ecosystem approach.  “Major reforms must be made in policies, institutions, and research and
development agendas to make sure that agroecological alternatives are massively
adopted, made equitably and broadly accessible, and multiplied so that their
full benefit for sustainable food security can be realized. It must be
recognized that a major constraint to the spread of agroecology has been that
powerful economic and institutional interests have backed research and
development for the conventional agro-industrial approach, while research and
development for agroecology and sustainable approaches has in most countries
been largely ignored or even ostracized”  based on the study of Altieri (2009).

Food distribution and not
recognizing food security as a human right are considered challenges. The plan
of action emanating from the 1996 World Food Security (WFS) “highlighted the need to implement Article
11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and
called on countries, United Nations Agencies, and intergovernmental agencies to
better implement and realize the fundamental right of everyone to be free from
hunger “. In 2001, the International Food Security Community focused on the
need to balance: how to engage sufficient political will to secure food as a
human right  while maintaining a
commitment to increase  production that
will be required if we are to feed more than 50 percent larger population
without further damaging the environment in the future.

Success in
terms of resiliency and productivity has been achieved by agroecologically
based systems through the pillars of sustainable management of agricultural
systems (Koohafkan and Altieri , 2010):

Continuous increase in total
farm productivity
Permanent  disaster risk reduction and enhanced
resiliency.
Promotion of social equity,
cultural diversity, and  economic
viability,
Natural resources
conservation, ecosystem services and enhancement of biodiversity
Reducing dependency on
non-renewable resources and optimization of natural cycles
Land degradation prevention and the protection of the general
environment.

The magnitude of the
challenge to food security is to provide action throughout the food system,
reducing waste,  on moderating demand,
improving governance and increase food production. More food should be produced
using sustainable intensification (SI) strategies, (Chappell 2007).  Reducing the environmental impact from food
production is essential for human well-being and prosperity.

Promoting food sovereignty
defined as the “right of everyone to have access to safe, nutritious, and
culturally appropriate food in sufficient quantity and quality to sustain a
healthy life with full human dignity is a 
major emphasis of agroecological systems. However, given the expected
increase in the cost of fuel and inputs, the agroecological strategy also aims
at enhancing energy and technological sovereignty.  The right for all people to have access to
sufficient energy within ecological limits from appropriate sustainable sources
for a dignified life is called energy sovereignty while Technological
sovereignty refers to the capacity to achieve the two other forms of
sovereignty by nurturing the environmental services derived from optimizing
agrobiodiversity designs that encourage synergies and efficient use of locally
available resources” (Koohafkan and Altieri , 2010).

.

The design and implementation and integration and cooperation
arrangements that will promote food, energy and water security and thereby, add
to the current efforts on governance structures at the municipal, provincial,
regional and global levels conducive to sustainable food security development.
The Local Government Units (LGUs) has a potential role in promoting food
security. Food security solutions require joint efforts in involving government
agencies and policy makers, the private sector and industry, civil society and
collaboration within the development community. The challenges of sustainable
development are great and the importance of 
food, energy and water security in achieving sustainable development
goals cannot be overstated. Significant changes in the national, regional and
global food security systems will be required to meet these challenges.

Sustainable agriculture  that uses integrated based approach can be an
opportunity to achieve food security given that there is an interplay among the
six (6) dimensions stated: ecological, socio-cultural, institutional, political,
technological, and economic. An integrated natural resource management is essential
for sustainable livelihoods, disaster risk reduction and climate change
adaptation which can expand production potential and lead to food security. The
impacts of natural disasters in the agricultural industry needs deeper and
thorough planning and management to reduce crop losses.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

Reinforcing and promoting food security
requires a combination of initiatives that span ecological,
economic, socio-cultural, political, institutional, and technological dimensions.

LGUs should identify key strategies and policies foe achieving both
economic growth and sustainable development. The needed actions include:

1.      Encouraging greater international and
national cooperation in areas such as technology (aligned with SDG number seventeen:
Partnership for the Goals)

2.      Capacity building especially to the public
sector to address issues related to food security for sustainable development

3.      Removing obstacles and providing incentives
to encourage greater food efficiency and the sharing of technologies

4.      Creating market framework conditions
(including continued market reform, consistent regulatory measures, and
targeted policies ) to encourage competitiveness

5.      Considering the inter-linked nature of our
land and water resources, present government approaches to watershed management
should be “integrated”. Through this, the challenge to food security will also
be addressed