Human Child mortality rate is defined as the probability

Human Development Report

Name: Huitae
Han

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Homeroom: 9L

Humanities Teacher: Cormac
Delahunty

Mathematics Teacher: Cliff
Packman

Research question: Is
the composite index positively correlated to the UN HDI?

 

Section 1: Introduction

Human development index:

Human development
index (HDI) was created by a Pakistani economist, Mahub ul Haq, in 1990 for
United Nation Development Program (UNDP) to measure the countries’ development. HDI is a
measurement of a country’s overall achievement based on the health of people,
level of educational attainment and standard of living (“Definition of Human Development Index”).
There are 4 major areas of examination to calculate HDI; life expectancy at birth
(indicator of health), expected years of schooling (indicator of education),
mean years of schooling (indicator of education), and Gross National Income
(GNI) per capita (indicator of standard of living) (“Human Development
Index – HDI”).

 

Chosen
countries and explanation:

The sample 10
countries, which examines the developments in this report, are Angola, Nepal,
Mexico, Zambia, Kenya, Italy, Argentina, Philippine, Uganda, and Iraq. These
countries are the chosen samples because these countries are spread in
different places around the world, have different cultures, and have different levels
of developments.

 

Chosen
indicators and explanation:

Chosen Indicator

Indicator type

Definition

Expected importance

Expected correlation

Child mortality rate (per 1,000 born)

Health

Child mortality rate is defined
as the probability of child’s death between birth and before reaching an age
of five per 1,000 births (“Mortality rates for children.”).

Most important indicator

Positive – Very strong

Population below poverty line (%)

Standard of living

Population below poverty
line is defined as the percentage of population below the poverty (“Population below
poverty line”). The international poverty line is set at $1.25 to $1.9
per day (Hikel).

Fourth most important
indicator

Positive – Weak

Adult literacy rate  (%)

Education

Adult literacy rate is
defined as the percentage of people, who are able to read and write, among
people aged 15 and over in total population (“Literacy rate”).
 

Third most important
indicator

Positive – Moderate

Electrification (%)

Standard of living

Electrification is defined as the
percentage of total population of people in a specific area, who can stable
access to electricity (Hanania).

Second most important indicator

Positive – Strong

 

 

This
report examines the sample 10 countries base on these four indicators. The
country considered as a MEDC, if the country has the lower level of child mortality
rate and the population below poverty line. This is because lower rate of child
mortality means the people in the country are healthier and the lower
population poverty line means the people in the country are living in a better
quality of life. Also, if the country has the higher level of literacy rate and
the electrification, the country considered as a MEDC. This is because the
higher rate of literacy means people in the country are well-educated and high
value of electrification for total population means people in the country are
living in a better quality of life, too. You don’t need to hypothesize
all 4 indicators.

 

Hypothesises
for two indicators:

Child
mortality rate – The LEDCs (less economically developed country) will have
the bigger number of child mortality rate than MEDCs (more economically developed
country). This is because children in LEDCs are harder to access the medical
service than the children in MEDCs due to the number of hospitals and doctors,
who can save children from illness and injuries, are not enough. Moreover, even
there is enough number of hospitals and doctors, LEDCs people are harder to pay
for treatment than MEDCs people because LEDCs people have less income than MEDCs
people.

 

Electrification
–  The more developed countries will
have the higher percentage of electrification than less developed countries
because more developed countries have enough money to build power plants which can produce electricity,
while less developed countries don’t have enough money to build power plants.
Also, more citizens in more developed countries than the less developed
countries can use electricity because people in MEDC can buy electricity to
use. The higher percentage of electrification means that have the ability to
buy electricity and use in many ways, such as households, which indicates the
higher level of standard of living.

 

Section 2: Method of data collection

Table 1: The
table above shows the rank and the value of HDI and the chosen four indicators
of 10 sample countries.

 

The information
was collected from 3 different websites.

Source: hdr.undp.org; www.cia.gov;
www.gapminder.org

             

Section 3: Data presentation and analysis

Relationship
between child mortality rate (per 1,000 born) and the HDI

 

Figure 1: The figure above is a graph and a table that shows the PPMCC
(Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient) between child mortality rate
and the HDI for the 10 sample countries.

 

Figure 1 above shows
Italy, a country that has the highest HDI from sample 10 countries, has the
lowest value of child mortality rate. On the other hand, Angola, country that
has the lowest HDI from sample 10 countries, has the highest value of child
mortality rate. This indicates the number of HDI increases, the child mortality
rate decreases. Consequently, figure 1 shows LEDCs has a mostly higher number
of child mortality than MEDCs.

 

The graph used the
curved trend line rather than a straight line because the slope of the trend
line gets steeper when the trend line goes left. However, the slope gets more
flat, meaning a curve line can explain the trends better than a straight line.

 

The graph above
shows that the square number of PPMCC is approximately 0.844, meaning PPMCC is ±Ö(0.844), which is approximately
±0.919. However, the trend line is going down meaning the PPMCC value should be
approximately -0.919, which indicates the data has a very strong negative
relationship between two variables.

 

Table 2: The table above shows the SRCC (Spearman rank correlation
coefficient) between child mortality rate and the HDI for the 10 sample
countries.

 

            Table
2 above shows the SRCC between child mortality rate and the HDI for the 10
sample countries is approximately 0.903 out of 1, meaning the ranks of child
mortality rate and the rank of HDI is very similar. This indicates the SRCC
between child mortality rate and HDI is very strong positively.

           

            Figure
1 shows that the country, which has the higher value of child mortality rate, mostly
has the higher level of developments. Table 2 proved that the data is reliable
by comparing the rank of data with rank of HDI. Therefore, this statement
congruence with the first hypothesis above.

 

Relationship
between electrification and the HDI

 

Figure 2: The figure above is a graph and a table that shows the
PPMCC between electrification and the HDI for the 10 sample countries.

 

The figure 2 above
shows there is no exact linear trend line which can perfectly explain the trend
of the data, because the graph has the PPMCC value, which is almost 0, meaning
really weak trend. However, if there were no outliers on the left side of the
graph, the graph might have a strong positive PPMCC value, because the dots are
almost in a straight line which is rising.

 

            Table 3: The table above shows the SRCC between electrification and
the HDI for the 10 sample countries

 

            Table
3 above shows the SRCC between electrification and the HDI for the 10 sample
countries is about 0.879 out of 1. Not as much as the SRCC between child
mortality rate and HDI for 10 sample countries, but SRCC of 0.879 is a very
high value, meaning the electrification and the HDI is almost same in rank. This
indicates the correlation between electrification and HDI is strongly positive,
but not as much as the correlation between child mortality rate and the HDI.

 

Figure 2 shows that, if the value of
electrification gets over a certain point, the value of HDI dramatically
increases. Table 3 has proved the data is reliable by comparing the difference
between electrification and HDI in rank. This statement indicates some part of
the second hypothesis because the data shows that the countries are a having
similar value of HDI before the electrification reach 80%. However, the data
actually shows that most of the countries who have the higher value of HDI got
higher percentage of electrification.

 

Section 4: Conclusion

Table 4: The table above shows the UN HDI rankings, values of
composite HDI and the composite HDI rankings of ten sample countries.

 

The
composite HDI was calculated by using the formula; (rank first) x 4 + (rank second) x 3 + (rank
third) x 2 + (rank fourth) x 1.

 

Table 5: The table above shows the SRCC between the composite HDI
and the UN HDI.

 

            Table
5 shows the collected data directly answer ‘yes’ to the research question.

This is because 7 out of 10
countries don’t have any difference in the rank between the composite HDI and
UN HDI, and rest of the data only have a minimal difference; 1, 3, and 4. Consequently,
the SRCC between the composite HDI and the UN HDI is approximately 0.842, meaning
the composite HDI has a very strong positive correlation with UN HDI.

 

Section 5: Evaluation

This report had
collected reliable data because all the data used was collected in popular
sources, meaning less likely to have mistakes. Also, this report collected all
the data about four indicators for 10 sample countries, which was able to see
the trend of the data clearly, meaning collected enough data. To get more
accurate and fair sets of data, this report collected data, which was collected
in the same year. However, lots of data were collected in different years, so
this made a problem of collecting data from the internet. A disadvantage of
using internet source is some people may have bribed the data collector of the
website and change the data to make more benefit them, which can make data
invalid. This method was the best way to collect data, because using another
method, such as books, may have older data, meaning inaccurate. Therefore, next
time, this report will check the data with at least one other websites to
increase accuracy and complement the disadvantages that the method has.

 

Section 6: IDU reflection

Here are some questions to help you
reflect on your work. You should also refer to the IDU criteria D rubric.

1.    
Reflect on your own understanding
of Mathematics/Humanities interconnectedness.

2.    
Describe the way you use
Mathematics and Humanities in your inquiry process.

3.     Evaluate the benefits and
limitation of Mathematics and Humanities knowledge used in this project.

4.    
Provide a detailed explanation of
the importance of your findings and connection between Humanities and
Mathematics.

 

At the end of this
unit, I understand that the interconnection between mathematics and humanities
is very important. Humanities are the study of human culture, human society,
and historical events. Study of humanities help us to understand about human’s
life and make people to progress society by analyzing the past events. Mathematics
are the study of numbers and shapes. Study of mathematics help us to understand
a specific data by collecting exact quantitative values and getting extra
information by calculating values using formula. Consequently, if humanities
and mathematics interconnect with each other, people can easily notice a
serious problem of society by collecting quantitative values and finding out
which part of the society has a problem. Moreover, people can solve problems
that society has by collecting and calculating information using mathematics
and applying to the real world using humanities. This means that people can’t
solve problems that society has easily without either humanities and
mathematics, because people can’t notice the problems in society and can’t
apply the solution to solve problems of society without humanities. Furthermore,
people won’t be able to find how the severe problem is and can’t make the
solution without collecting and calculating data using mathematics. Therefore,
the connection between humanities and mathematics are very important.

 

When I was doing
this investigation, both humanities and mathematics were required to make my
investigation and IDU to be successful. Firstly, humanities helped me to
understand the background information about this investigation, such as what the
UN HDI and the development of countries are. Moreover, humanities allowed me to
set the research question, which was the question about what I wanted to know.
Secondly, mathematics made able for me organize the data using charts and
graph. Mathematics also allowed me to calculate my composite HDI and find out
how much do composite HDI correlated to UN official HDI. Moreover, mathematics made
able for me to answer the research question and satisfied my curiosity, especially
about development of the world.

 

 

 

 

Words: ****

Works cited:

“Definition of Human Development
Index | what is Human Development Index? Human Development Index Meaning.” The
Economic Times,
economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/human-development-index.

 

“Human Development Index – HDI.”
Investopedia, 23 May 2015, www.investopedia.com/terms/h/human-development-index-hdi.asp.

 

“Mortality rates for children.” Conflict, conflict.lshtm.ac.uk/page_99.htm.

 

“Population below poverty line – World.” Index
Mundi, www.indexmundi.com/map/?v=69.

 

Hickel, Jason. “Could you live on $1.90 a day?
That’s the international poverty line.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media,
1 Nov. 2015, www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/nov/01/global-poverty-is-worse-than-you-think-could-you-live-on-190-a-day.

 

“Literacy rate.” UNESCO UIS, 27 Sept. 2017,
uis.unesco.org/en/glossary-term/literacy-rate.

 

Hanania, Jordan, et al.
“Access to electricity.” Energy Education,
energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Access_to_electricity. Accessed 16 Jan. 2018.