Biomass degraded crop, mixed crop, and vegetation land. In

Biomass Resources in Rural IndiaBiomass is defined as bio-residue obtained from living or dead plant, wastes from forestry, agro or food industries and water-based vegetation 10.  Biomass resources basically comprised of a mixture of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Approximately 100 billion tones of organic dry matter of land biomass and 50 billion tones of aquatic biomass is found on earth per annum 6, 11. Only 1.25% of the entire land biomass is used as food while some part of it is used as energy and industrial raw materials. The rest of the biomass is unused or recycled into the earth system, which can be used as raw material for chemical production. Currently, starches, sugar, oils and fats, cellulose, rubbers have been used industrially as well 6, 12. Thus biomass-based biorefinery has got a strong scientific emphasis.India is very rich in biomass resources and various biomass resources are available in India in different forms like wood and their waste, agro-crop residues and agro-industrial processing residues, animal residues, and aquatic plants. We could meet our energy requirement from these resources. India has 150 million hectares of available land including dumped, degraded crop, mixed crop, and vegetation land. In India, approximately 50 million metric tonnes (MMt) of liquid fuels are consumed per annum, but India is able to generate almost twice of that amount per annum with full utilization of the actual biomass potential ref. The main biomass sources found in rural India are as discussed below:2.1 Forest wood and sawdust: India is a large developing country known for its diverse forest ecosystems and mega biodiversity. In India, the forest is the second largest land-use after agriculture, covering 22% of the total land of the country. It ranks 10th amongst the most forested nations of the world with 701673 sq. km. of forest area 28, 29. With nearly 173,000 villages classified as forest fringe villages, there is obviously a large dependence of communities on forest resources. As these areas are rich in forest wood, some wastes like tree branches, chips, leaves, etc. are found there.  Also, many wood-based industries, i.e. sawmills are found in rural India where a lot of sawdust are produced during processing round wood into primary wood products. Woody biomass is the largest biomass energy source for the most of the world’s especially for the developing countries 30. Moreover, a lot of solid wastes in the form of press cake (deoiled cake) and seed cover are obtained from several non-edible oil seed varieties (Jatropha, Mesua ferrea, Castor, Pongamia etc.) found in forests. These seeds are characterized by the presence of various anti-nutritional and toxic (potentially fatal) components such as phorabol ester (Jatropha), ricin (Castor) and karanjin (Pongamia); thus these cannot be utilized as food or feed for animals xx. Therefore, cost-effective and eco-friendly methods are required for the disposal of these bio-wastes to improve the economic and environmental prospects for non-edible oil crops for downstream applications. The chemical compositions of the solid residues obtained from oil seed are similar to many of the biomass feedstocks and by-products. Seed covers have very high polysaccharide (cellulose and hemicellulose) content and therefore can be an excellent feedstock for production of syngas, pyrolysis oil, other biofuel and chemicals by different conversion processes. In the agricultural field, weeds cause 10-80 % crop yield losses besides impairing the product quality and causing health and environmental hazards. For example, invasive alien weeds are a major constraint to agriculture, forestry, and aquatic environment. Similarly, crop-specific problematic weeds (weedy rice in rice) are emerging as a threat to cultivation, affecting crop production, quality of product and income of farmers. Lantana (Lantana camara L.), Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.), Mikania (Mikania micrantha Kunth), Royle’s Spurge (Euphorbia royleana Boiss) are some example of the weed which are found in different wastelands, forestlands, grazing lands and roadside of various regions and spread very fast, covering thousands of hectares of land. Hence these become a major menace to natural forests, plantations and agricultural systems of the rural area 32. Also, various weed species are found in the forest as well as in roadside and other wasteland, which can be used as feedstock for the biorefinery. These bio-refineries can convert these species into valuable chemicals and fuels by the thermo-chemical way, which would be a good option for weed management in those areas.2.2 Agricultural waste (or residues): Agriculture is regarded as the backbone of India’s economy. Although agriculture contributes only 17% to India’s GPD, it is the source of subsistence for nearly 60% of its population 33. About 60% of land area of the country is under various agricultural practices 34. The arable land in the country is 159 million hectare (Mha),11.2% of global share. Globally India ranks first in the production of jute and second in rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and groundnut. With a production of 93.9 million tons (Mt) of wheat, 104.6 Mt of rice, 21.6 Mt of maize, 20.7 Mt of millets, 357.7 Mt of sugarcane, 8.1 Mt of fibre crops (jute, mesta, cotton), 17.2 Mt of pulses and 30.0 Mt of oilseeds crops, in the year 2011-12 35, it is but natural that a huge volume of crop residues are produced both on-farm and off-farmBiomass Resources in Rural IndiaBiomass is defined as bio-residue obtained from living or dead plant, wastes from forestry, agro or food industries and water-based vegetation 10.  Biomass resources basically comprised of a mixture of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Approximately 100 billion tones of organic dry matter of land biomass and 50 billion tones of aquatic biomass is found on earth per annum 6, 11. Only 1.25% of the entire land biomass is used as food while some part of it is used as energy and industrial raw materials. The rest of the biomass is unused or recycled into the earth system, which can be used as raw material for chemical production. Currently, starches, sugar, oils and fats, cellulose, rubbers have been used industrially as well 6, 12. Thus biomass-based biorefinery has got a strong scientific emphasis.India is very rich in biomass resources and various biomass resources are available in India in different forms like wood and their waste, agro-crop residues and agro-industrial processing residues, animal residues, and aquatic plants. We could meet our energy requirement from these resources. India has 150 million hectares of available land including dumped, degraded crop, mixed crop, and vegetation land. In India, approximately 50 million metric tonnes (MMt) of liquid fuels are consumed per annum, but India is able to generate almost twice of that amount per annum with full utilization of the actual biomass potential ref. The main biomass sources found in rural India are as discussed below:2.1 Forest wood and sawdust: India is a large developing country known for its diverse forest ecosystems and mega biodiversity. In India, the forest is the second largest land-use after agriculture, covering 22% of the total land of the country. It ranks 10th amongst the most forested nations of the world with 701673 sq. km. of forest area 28, 29. With nearly 173,000 villages classified as forest fringe villages, there is obviously a large dependence of communities on forest resources. As these areas are rich in forest wood, some wastes like tree branches, chips, leaves, etc. are found there.  Also, many wood-based industries, i.e. sawmills are found in rural India where a lot of sawdust are produced during processing round wood into primary wood products. Woody biomass is the largest biomass energy source for the most of the world’s especially for the developing countries 30. Moreover, a lot of solid wastes in the form of press cake (deoiled cake) and seed cover are obtained from several non-edible oil seed varieties (Jatropha, Mesua ferrea, Castor, Pongamia etc.) found in forests. These seeds are characterized by the presence of various anti-nutritional and toxic (potentially fatal) components such as phorabol ester (Jatropha), ricin (Castor) and karanjin (Pongamia); thus these cannot be utilized as food or feed for animals xx. Therefore, cost-effective and eco-friendly methods are required for the disposal of these bio-wastes to improve the economic and environmental prospects for non-edible oil crops for downstream applications. The chemical compositions of the solid residues obtained from oil seed are similar to many of the biomass feedstocks and by-products. Seed covers have very high polysaccharide (cellulose and hemicellulose) content and therefore can be an excellent feedstock for production of syngas, pyrolysis oil, other biofuel and chemicals by different conversion processes. In the agricultural field, weeds cause 10-80 % crop yield losses besides impairing the product quality and causing health and environmental hazards. For example, invasive alien weeds are a major constraint to agriculture, forestry, and aquatic environment. Similarly, crop-specific problematic weeds (weedy rice in rice) are emerging as a threat to cultivation, affecting crop production, quality of product and income of farmers. Lantana (Lantana camara L.), Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.), Mikania (Mikania micrantha Kunth), Royle’s Spurge (Euphorbia royleana Boiss) are some example of the weed which are found in different wastelands, forestlands, grazing lands and roadside of various regions and spread very fast, covering thousands of hectares of land. Hence these become a major menace to natural forests, plantations and agricultural systems of the rural area 32. Also, various weed species are found in the forest as well as in roadside and other wasteland, which can be used as feedstock for the biorefinery. These bio-refineries can convert these species into valuable chemicals and fuels by the thermo-chemical way, which would be a good option for weed management in those areas.2.2 Agricultural waste (or residues): Agriculture is regarded as the backbone of India’s economy. Although agriculture contributes only 17% to India’s GPD, it is the source of subsistence for nearly 60% of its population 33. About 60% of land area of the country is under various agricultural practices 34. The arable land in the country is 159 million hectare (Mha),11.2% of global share. Globally India ranks first in the production of jute and second in rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and groundnut. With a production of 93.9 million tons (Mt) of wheat, 104.6 Mt of rice, 21.6 Mt of maize, 20.7 Mt of millets, 357.7 Mt of sugarcane, 8.1 Mt of fibre crops (jute, mesta, cotton), 17.2 Mt of pulses and 30.0 Mt of oilseeds crops, in the year 2011-12 35, it is but natural that a huge volume of crop residues are produced both on-farm and off-farm. It is estimated that approximately 500-550 Mt of crop residues are produced per year in the country 36. However, due to the diversity in cropping practices, soil types and agro-climatic conditions across the India, distribution, quantity, and availability of residues is highly spatiotemporal in nature. The shape and composition of these crop residues also may vary due to the soils, fertilizers, and farm practices used in crop growing. These crop residues are used for animal feeding, soil mulching, biomanure making, thatching for rural homes and fuel for domestic and industrial use 36. These residues are the potential biomass feedstock for the use of energy generation 10, 37.  Due to the variety and diversity of biomass, sufficient data and documentation regarding availability and consumption/ utilization patterns are not easily available. Crop residues and their quantity available in India comply in Table 1 as mentioned in the reference 33.. It is estimated that approximately 500-550 Mt of crop residues are produced per year in the country 36. However, due to the diversity in cropping practices, soil types and agro-climatic conditions across the India, distribution, quantity, and availability of residues is highly spatiotemporal in nature. The shape and composition of these crop residues also may vary due to the soils, fertilizers, and farm practices used in crop growing. These crop residues are used for animal feeding, soil mulching, biomanure making, thatching for rural homes and fuel for domestic and industrial use 36. These residues are the potential biomass feedstock for the use of energy generation 10, 37.  Due to the variety and diversity of biomass, sufficient data and documentation regarding availability and consumption/ utilization patterns are not easily available. Crop residues and their quantity available in India comply in Table 1 as mentioned in the reference 33.